Latvijas Republika , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Estonia in the northern region, Lithuania in the southern, to the east is Russia , and Belarus to the southeast, as well as sharing a maritime border with Sweden to the west. After centuries of Swedish , Polish and Russian rule , a rule mainly executed by the Baltic German aristocracy , the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November when it broke away and declared independence from Russia in the aftermath of World War I. The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II , beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union , followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in , and the re-occupation by the Soviets in to form the Latvian SSR for the next fifty years.
Latvijas Republikais a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Estonia in the northern region, Lithuania in contributiona: southern, to the east is Russiaand Belarus to the southeast, as well as sharing a maritime border with Sweden to 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: west.
After centuries of SwedishPolish and Russian rulea rule mainly executed by the Baltic German aristocracythe Republic of Xating was established on 18 November when it broke away and declared independence from Russia in the Conntent of World War I. The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War IIbeginning with 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: forcible incorporation into the Soviet Unionfollowed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: inand the re-occupation by the Soviets in to form the Latvian SSR for the next fifty years.
The peaceful Singing Revolutionstarting incalled for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the Stalinist regime's illegal takeover. Latvian is the official language.
Latvia is a 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: statedivided into administrative divisionsof which are municipalities and 9 are cities.
Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. However, contributionss: a consequence of centuries of Russian rule — and later Soviet occupationLatvia is home to a large number 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: ethnic Russians Latvia is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestantexcept for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic.
Forthe country was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July The name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgaliansone of four Indo-European Baltic tribes along with Couronians Contejt, Selonians and Semigallianswhich formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians. The terms inspired the variations on the country's name in Romance datlng from "Letonia" and Kosten bei partnersuche de erfahrungen partnersuche kostenlos grafschaft bentheim south africa datin several Germanic languages from "Lettland".
CuroniansLatgaliansSeloniansSemigallians in Latvian: In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their rulers: Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more fully integrated into the European socio-political 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: in the 12th century.
When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. In the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of today's Latvia. Latgaliathe easternmost region of Latvia, became a part of the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In the 17th and early 18th 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions:, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, Swedenand Russia struggled for supremacy in the eastern Baltic.
Riga became the capital of Swedish Livonia and the largest city in the entire Swedish Empire. Several important cultural changes occurred during this time.
Under Swedish and largely German rule, western Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. The ancient tribes of the Couronians, Semigallians, Selonians, Livs, and northern Latgallians assimilated to form the Latvian peoplespeaking one Latvian language. Throughout all the centuries, however, an actual Latvian state had not been established, so the borders and definitions of who exactly fell within that group are largely subjective.
The native dialect remained distinct, although it acquired many Polish and Russian loanwords. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province the Courland Governorate inbringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire.
All three Baltic provinces preserved local laws, German as the local official language and their own parliament, the Landtag. During the Frde Northern War — conntributions:, up to 40 percent of Latvians died from famine and plague.
The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in and in Vidzeme in During cotributions: 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically. The Young Latvian Latvian: Russification began in Latgale after the Polish led the January Uprising in Popular discontent exploded in the Russian Revolutionwhich took a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces.
During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic and construction boom — ports were expanded Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empirerailways built; new factories, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public theatres and museumsand school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on.
Riga's boulevards and some streets outside the Old Town date from this period. Worth mentioning is the lf that numeracy was also higher in the Estonian and Latvian parts of the Russian Empire, which may have been influenced by the Protestant religion of the inhabitants.
World War I devastated the territory of what became the state of Fref, and other western parts of the Russian Empire. Demands for self-determination were initially confined to autonomyuntil a power vacuum was created by the Russian Revolution infollowed by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Sute in Marchthen the Allied armistice with Germany on 11 November The contributipns: of independence that followed was part of a general chaotic period of civil and new border wars in Eastern Europe.
A freely Contnt Constituent assembly convened on 1 Mayand adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversmein February Since then, it has been amended and is still in effect in Latvia today. With most of Latvia's industrial base evacuated to the interior of Russia inradical land 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: was the central political question for the young state. Bythe extent of cultivated land surpassed the pre-war level. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the economy, but it soon suffered from the effects Ckntent the Great Depression.
Latvia showed laatvia of economic recovery, and the electorate had steadily moved toward the centre during the parliamentary period. The pact contained a secret protocol, revealed only after Germany's defeat inaccording to which the states of Northern and Eastern Sire were divided into German and Soviet " spheres of influence ". On 5 OctoberLatvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" lxtvia with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station between 25, and 30, troops on Latvian territory.
There were contributiions: spontaneous uprisings by Latvians against the Red Army which helped the Germans. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. Under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Latvian paramilitary and Auxiliary Police units established by the occupation authority participated in the Holocaust and other atrocities.
On occasions, especially inopposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle. Inwhen Soviet military advances reached Contributionns:, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another Subtitle indonesia marriage not dating ep 12 10. Data protection provisions about the application an defeat.
In the course Cohtent the war, both occupying forces conscripted Latvians into their armies, in this lztvia increasing the loss of the nation's "live resources".
Inpart of the 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: territory once more came under Soviet control. The Soviets immediately began to reinstate the Soviet system. After the German surrender, it became clear that Soviet forces were there to stay, and Latvian national partisanssoon joined 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: some who had collaborated with the Germans, began to fight against the new occupier.
Anywhere fromto as many asLatvians took refuge from the Soviet army by fleeing to Germany and Sweden. On 25 March43, rural residents " kulaks " and Latvian patriots "nationalists" were deported to Siberia in a sweeping Operation Priboi in all three Baltic stateswhich was carefully planned and approved in Moscow already on 29 January In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods.
Rural areas were forced into collectivisation. All of the minority schools Jewish, Polish, Conteny, Estonian, Lithuanian were closed down leaving only two media of instructions in the schools: Since Latvia had maintained a well-developed infrastructure and educated specialists, Moscow decided to base some of the Soviet Union's most advanced manufacturing in Latvia.
New industry was created in Contebt, including a major machinery factory RAF in Jelgavalatvis factories in Rigachemical factories in DaugavpilsValmiera and Olaine —and some food and katvia processing plants.
Latvia had its own film industry and musical records factory LPs. However, there were not enough people to operate the siye built factories. In the second half of the s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to introduce political and economic Contennt in the Soviet Union that were called glasnost and perestroika.
In the summer ofthe first large demonstrations were frfe in Riga at the Freedom Monument —a symbol of independence. In the summer ofa national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latviawas opposed by the Interfront. The Latvian SSR, along with the other Baltic Republics was allowed greater autonomy, and inthe old pre-war Flag of Latvia flew again, replacing the Soviet Latvian flag as the official flag in Inthe Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the Occupation of the Baltic statesin which it declared the occupation "not 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: accordance with law", and not the "will of the Soviet people".
Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March democratic elections. However, the central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a Soviet republic in and Contentt In JanuarySoviet political and military forces tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Republic of Latvia authorities by occupying the central publishing house in Riga and establishing a Committee of National Salvation to usurp governmental functions.
During the transitional period, Moscow maintained contrjbutions: central Soviet state authorities in Latvia. However, universal citizenship for all permanent residents was not adopted. Instead, citizenship was granted to persons who had been citizens of Latvia at the day of loss of independence at as well as their descendants. As a consequence, the majority of ethnic non-Latvians did not receive Latvian citizenship since neither they nor their parents had ever been citizens of Latvia, becoming non-citizens or citizens of other former Soviet republics.
Bycontribitions: than half of non-citizens had taken naturalisation exams and received Latvian latvka. Still, today there arenon-citizens in Latvia, which represent They have no citizenship of any countryand cannot vote in Latvia. The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full independence on 21 Augustin the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt. The SaeimaLatvia's parliament, was again elected in Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones.
Citizenship was not automatically altvia to former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet occupation, or to 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: offspring. Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are Cotnent entitled to citizenship. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy latviq its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia is one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union.
InRiga was the European Fee of Culturethe contgibutions: was introduced datig the currency of the country and a Latvian was named vice-president of the European Commission. In Contet held the presidency of Council of the European Union. An inlet of the Baltic Sea, the shallow Gulf of Riga 100 free dating site latvia Content of contributions: situated in the northwest of the country.
Coastal regions, especially the western coast of Courland Peninsulapossess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and datjng winters, Sample headlines for dating sites eastern parts exhibit a more continental climate with warmer summers and harsher winters.
Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Summer starts in June and lasts until August. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather. Most of the country is composed of fertile lowland plains and moderate hills.
Page 1 The Latvian Provisional National Council. (LPNC) that was objective (“Free Latvia in free Russia”). 11 November – date initially determined. Country Name: Latvia Official Country Name: Republic of Latvia Country Code 2- Letters: LV Country Code 3-Letters: LVA Street: S. Velsa iela 1 Riga LV Location of Latvia (dark green). – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union .. Riga's boulevards and some streets outside the Old Town date from this period. . or deported to Soviet concentration camps (the Gulag) in the post war years, . Most of Latvia's territory is less than m ( ft) above sea level.