This paper is part of ' A Manchurian candidate or just a dark horse? Democracies are sustained by active participation of the governed. The desire to win an election or to be reelected motivates, in theory, the behaviour of public officials, as election results provide guidance regarding public preferences and ongoing elections serve as renewals of the social contract, providing legitimacy to elected officials. While compulsory for many citizens in some democracies, voting is voluntary for most voters, and many eligible citizens in those countries regularly fail to participate in elections. Further, active voters are often unrepresentative of the broader public, raising concerns about political representation.