This number of neighbouring states is equalled only by China's vast neighbour to the north, Russia. This article only covers mainland China. For Hong Kong , Macau and Taiwan , please see separate articles. The roughly year old Chinese civilization has endured through millennia of tumultuous upheaval and revolutions, periods of golden ages and anarchy alike. Through the recent economic boom initiated by the reforms of Deng Xiaoping, China is once again one of the leading nations in the world, buoyed by its large, industrious population and abundant natural resources.